HOMEOPATHY IN CASES OF KERATOSIS PILARIS

Keratosis pilaris are common skin condition that causes tiny bumps on the skin. The bumps often develops on the back of the arms.

Keratosis pilaris is mainly found on the upper arms,thighs,cheeks,or buttocks.


RISK FACTORS


  • Close blood relatives history
  • Asthma
  • Dry skin
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis)
  • Obese
  • Hay fever
  • Ichthyosis vulgaris
  • Womens are more prone
  • Children or teenagers

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES


SYMPTOMS


Keratosis pilaris can occur at any age,but it’s more common in young children.signs and symptoms include

  • Painless,red or slight pinkness, tiny bumps,typically on the upper arms,thighs,cheeks,or buttocks
  • Dry ,rough skin in the areas with bumps
  • Worsening when seasonal changes cause low humidity and the skin tends to be drier
  • Sandpaper -like bumps resembling goose flesh 

CAUSES


Keratosis pilaris results from the buildup of keratin -a hard protein that protects skin from harmful substances and infection. The keratin forms a scaly plug that blocks the opening of the hair follicle.usually many plugs form,causing patches of rough,bumpy skin.


DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT


DIAGNOSIS


  • This condition doesn’t require any testing
  • Diagnosis is made by physical examination

TREATMENT


  1. This condition is usually a self treatable
  2. Medicated soaps and creams will improve the symptoms

MANAGEMENT


  • Avoid tight clothing
  • Moisturizer
  • Warm bath
  • Exfoliation
  • Use coconut oil
  • Maintain hygiene

HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT


  1. Agaricus muscarius
  2. Arsenic album
  3. Rhus tox
  4. Borax bovista
  5. Lithium carb
  6. Mercurius
  7. Phosphorus 
  8. Thuja
  9. Sepia
  10. Petroleum
  11. Sulphur
  12. Kali mur

DO’S AND DON’TS


DO’S


  • exfoliate your affected areas of skin once in every week.
  • moisturise your skin regularly

DON’TS


  • don’t let your skin gets dehydrated

HOMEOPATHIC APPROACH TO LIPOMA

WHAT IS LIPOMA?

Lipoma is slow growing fatty lump that’s most often situated between your skin and the underlying muscle layer that occurs due to overgrowth of the fat cells .

 doctors consider lipoma as benign tumors,which means that they are non cancerous growth

Lipomas are slow growing and usually harmless rarely, they can be cancerous.

Lipoma may be single or multiple in body.


Sites of occurance of lipoma


A lipoma can form on any part of the body, but they typically appear on the :

  • Neck
  • Shoulders
  • Back
  • Abdomen
  • Arms
  • Thighs 

Risk factors


The exact cause of lipoma is unknown but factors increase the risk of lipoma such as

  •  Family history of lipoma
  •  Most prevalent in adults between 40 to 60
  •  Certain conditions also increase the risk of lipoma such as adiposis dolorosa,cowden syndrome,gardner’s syndrome,madelung’s disease
  •  Are obese
  •  Have high cholesterol
  •  Have diabetes
  •  Have liver disease

CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS


CAUSES


The exact cause is unknown but the above describe factors play an important role in developing lipoma


SYMPTOMS


  • Be soft to touch- lipoma typically feel soft ,oval-shaped 
  • Move easily if prodded with your finger
  • Be just under the skin- lipoma generally situated beneath the skin
  • Colour of lipoma – the colour of lipoma is depends upon the location if lipoma situated superficial show yellowish in colour or if deep situated it shows reddish blue to deep blue colour
  • Grow slowly- in majority of the case the growth of the lipoma are slow 
  • Mainly lipoma is painless but Painful only if it grows into nerves underneath the skin
  • If Lipoma located deep in skin it may cause pressure on internal organs it lead to associated symptoms

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT


DIAGNOSIS


  • Diagnosis of lipoma is based on physical examination
  • Biopsy for lab examination to rule out the cancerous condition
  • An x-ray or other imaging test such as an MRI or CT scan

TREATMENT


Generally lipoma doesn’t need any treatment if ,is painful or growing in size or some patient having cosmetic issue then surgery required

  • Surgical removal of lipoma
  • Liposuction
  • Steroid injections

All these methods are conventional but homeopathy cure the condition without any complication, it also prevent from surgery and recurrence.


HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT


Homoeopathy medicine are very useful for the lipoma because it reduces the size of lipoma , some medicines are calcarea flour ,calcarea carb,thuja,kali-iodatum,sulphur,belladonna etc. Treatment of lipoma in homoeopathy is purely based on case-taking.


DO’S AND DON’TS


DO’s

  • Increase the amount of vegetables and fruits in your diet
  • Eat more fish,fish contain good amount of healthy omega-3 fats and good quality of protein.

DON’TS


  • Avoid eating red meat
  • Switch to organic foods as much as possible.
  • Avoid to create panic state

OSTEOMYELITIS AND ITS MANAGEMENT

WHAT IS OSTEOMYELITIS?


Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow, infection lead to inflammation of bones, infections can happen suddenly or developed over a long period of time.

If they are not treated properly,bone infection get can leave a bone permanently damaged


Causative agent 

In most cases, staphylococcus aureus,a type of staph bacteria are the causative agent of osteomyelitis, other bacteria are pseudomonas and enterobacteriaceae


Types of osteomyelitis

Acute osteomyelitis – in acute osteomyelitis , the infection develops within 2 weeks of an injury ,initial infection , or the start of an underlying disease . the pain can be intense ,and the condition can be life-be life threatening.

Subacute osteomyelitis

In sub acute osteomyelitis , infection develops with in 1-2 months of an injury,initial infection ,or the start of an underlying disease.

Chronic osteomyelitis

In chronic osteomyelitis, infection starts at least 2 months after an injury , initial infection, or the start of an underlying disease.

Osteomyelitis in children and adults

In children generally it is acute and shows symptoms within 2 weeks of pre-existing blood infection this is known as hematogenous osteomyelitis,and it is normally due to methicillin -resistant staphylococcus aureus

In adults,subacute or chronic osteomyelitis are more common,especially after an injury or trauma,such as a fractured bone. This is known as contiguous osteomyelitis. It usually affects adults over the age of 50 years.


Risk factors

  • Weak immune system due to any reason such as medical conditions,or medications
  • Diabetes
  • Sickle cell disease 
  • HIV
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Intravenous drugs use
  • Alcoholism
  • Long term use of steroids
  • Hemodialysis
  • Poor blood supply
  • Recent injury
  • Bone surgery,including hip and knee replacements 

Complications

  • Bone abscess
  • paravertebral/epidural abscess
  • Bacteremia
  • Septicemia 
  • Fracture
  • Bone necrosis
  • Overlying soft tissue cellulitis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Skin cancer
  • Pulmonary embolism

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES


SYMPTOMS


  • Bone pain 
  • Fever
  • General discomfort,uneasiness,or ill- feeling(malaise)
  • Local swelling
  • Redness and warmth
  • Chills
  • Excessive sweating
  • Low back pain swelling of the ankles,feet and legs.
  • Tenderness 
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty in motion
  • Irritability

CAUSES


Osteomyelitis can result from:

Whenever an infection develops inside the bone, the immune system will try to fight with the infection neutrophils , a type of white blood cell, but if the immune system not able to fight with the infection,the dead neutrophils will accumulate inside the bone, forming an abscess, or pocket of pus.

The abscess may block vital blood supplies to the affected bone.in chronic osteomyelitis,the bone may eventually die.

Generally bone are resistant to infection,but infection may enter a bone under some conditions

  1. Hematogenous spread – bacteria also spread via blood  to other parts of the body
  2. Direct introduction of microbes from external source -post traumatic or surgical contamination
  3. contagious sources: soft tissue or joint infection ,a special type occurs in foot bones of diabetic patients,

A minor trauma ,which can lead to a blood clot around the bone and then secondary infection from seeding of bacteria.

Bacteria in the bloodstream, which is deposited in focal (localised) area of the bone .this bacterial site in the bone then grows , resulting in destruction of the bone.


DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT


DIAGNOSIS


depends upon the physical examination and sign and symptoms of soft tissue and bone tenderness with redness and swelling.

Some tests are also doing for osteomyelitis such as

  • X-ray – x ray shows abnormalities of the bone,which can suggest bone destruction from bacterial.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) ; thus shows any fluid in the bone and also show how far infection is spread.
  • Blood test :CBC finding will be raised WBC due to inflammation
  • Blood culture:to find out the type of bacteria and also find out the antibodies
  • Bone biopsy- sample of fluid is taken from bone to find out the type of bacteria 
  • CT scan of bone

TREATMENT


depends upon the type of osteomyelitis:

Convention treatment for osteomyelitis .Such as in acute case for adults 4-6 weeks of antibiotics with painkiller

Drain the infected area,remove diseased bone and tissue,restore blood flow to the bone,remove any foreign objects and in most severe case may amputate are required.

All these treatments are temporary and not safe thus homoeopathy are safe and effective because it improves the immunity and give immunity to fight with the infection.


MANAGEMENT


  • Maintain hygiene conditions
  • Eat healthy diet 
  • Do exercise daily
  • Take more calcium and vitamin D
  • Hot and cold packs
  • Maintain healthy weight
  • Mild exercises daily
  • Avoid cut injuries

HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT


Homeopathy medicines having good results because it gives you immunity to fight with the infection and as a result your body will automatically prepare and prevent from infection.but never take the medicines without consulting a registered practitioner.

Arnica

Mezereum

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Symphytum

Agaricus

causticum


DO’S AND DON’TS


Do’s


  • Take rest
  • Eat healthy diet
  • Maintain healthy weight

Don’t


  • Avoid unnecessary strain to joints
  • Avoid motion of joints
  • Try to avoid injuries

HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT OF BURSITIS!!!

WHAT IS BURSITIS?

It is a painful condition that affects many joints of the body.

 Bursae are fluid filled sacs(cavities) found near the joints. They act as a cushion and contains a fluid which acts as a lubricant that reduces friction between. Together they help in easy movement of joints.  

Sometimes because of some causes this bursa gets irritated and gets swollen(filled with extra fluid) putting pressure on nearby joint, the resultant condition is called bursitis.


JOINTS AFFECTED- Amongst the various joints of the body any one can get affected. Joints near which bursitis can be commonly found are- Shoulder, elbow(tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, student’s elbow), ankle, knee(clergyman knee, housemaid knee) and hips. 


RISK FACTORS


Common risk factors are: 

  • Obesity: heavy weight puts much pressure on joints and surrounding areas.
  • Manual workers: repetitive strenuous physical exertion is one of the most important factors causing bursitis.
  • Athletes: Those who are regularly engaged in some sort of physical exercises are also prone to get  bursitis.

COMPLICATIONS

Untreated bursitis can lead to progressive or persistent pain with complete loss of movement of joint.


CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS


CAUSES

Some of the main causes of bursitis are injury, overuse and infection.

  • OVERUSE: bursitis can also occur if the nearby structures has been overused (commonly by repetitive movements).
  • INJURY: In cases of injury, tissues inside the bursa gets irritated causing pain and tenderness. It may occur by hard blow to affected area.
  • INFECTION: It can occur in bursae near skin by a cut as it gives access to bacterias to enter the bursa.
  • Other health condition: Some underlying conditions (such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma) can cause crystal formations inside the bursa which ultimately causes bursitis.

SYMPTOMS

  • Pain: Which increases with joint movement, pressure and sometimes at night.
  • Tenderness of affected area
  • Swelling in surrounding area
  • Restriction of joint movement and ultimately complete loss of joint movement.
  • Area hot to touch: when underlying infection is present. It may also cause fever. 

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT


DIAGNOSIS

A thorough joint examination along with history of recent activities help in getting the clear picture of this condition.

Some investigations that can be useful to rule out other similar condition and make a diagnosis are:

  • X Ray: to rule out fracture of bones.
  • Blood investigations: to assess whether you are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis or not.  
  • CT scan/MRI to see any torn tendon
  • Sometimes a sample may be taken of your joint fluid to rule out bacterial infection.

TREATMENT


It depends upon the severity of your symptoms. Most of the time giving adequate rest to the affected joint is enough. 

Under conventional treatment, painkillers are given to help in severe pain and in cases of underlying infections, antibiotics are prescribed.  

But these painkillers gives only temporary relief and can cause other health problems in the long run.


MANAGEMENT


  • Rest: Giving complete rest to the joint and not moving it unless necessary will give it time to heal.
  • Ice pack: Wrapping up some ice in a towel and then applying it on affected area helps to reduce pain and swelling. It is to be noted that you must never place ice directly on skin.
  • Raising affected area: So that less blood gets collected hus causing less swelling.

HOMOEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT


Some of the commonly used homoeopathic medicines in case of bursitis are- Arnica, bryonia, ferrum phos, kalmia latifolia, rhus tox, ruta, belladonna and lachnanthus etc.

In each case, suitable homoeopathic medicine is selected depending upon the characteristic symptoms found in the patient and it should never be taken without consultation of a doctor.


DO’S AND DON’TS


DO’S


  • Protect vulnerable parts of body. Like wear knee pad, elbow braces, good shoes etc
  • When doing any repetitive task, take break inbetween and stretch your body.
  • Warm up for 5-10 minutes before doing any vigorous exercise.  
  • Maintain healthy weight.
  • Strenghtening muscles around affected joint provides extra protection from future injuries. Note that it should be done only after bursitis is completely healed.

DON’TS


  • Avoid overuse of affected joint.
  • If you are going to try some new exercise, start it gradually to avoid any injury.

TACKLE CELLULITIS WITH HOMEOPATHY!!!

WHAT IS CELLULITIS ?


Cellulitis is a common and sometimes painful bacterial skin infection. The affected skin appears swollen and red and is typically painful and warm to the touch.


RISK FACTORS


  • Trauma to the skin
  • Being overweight or obese increases the risk of developing cellulitis.
  • Diabetes and liver disease such as chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis.
  • Circular problems, such as not proper blood flow to arms and legs, poor drainage of veins or lymphatic system
  • Swelling in the legs or arm from varicose veins or after surgery on the veins or lymph nodes.

COMPLICATIONS


  • Cellulitis may damage the lymphatic drainage system and cause chronic swelling of the affected limb.
  • The infection can spread to the deep layer of tissue called the fascial lining.

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES


Symptoms


  • Pain and tenderness in the affected area
  • Redness or inflammation of your skin
  • Fever and dizziness
  • Blister and skin dimpling
  • Drowsiness and muscle ache
  • Tight, glossy, swollen skin
  • Leaking of yellow, clear fluid or pus
  • Abscess with pus
  • A skin sore or rash that grows quickly
  • A feeling of warmth in the affected area
  • Swelling and red streaking

Causes


  • Infection after surgical wound
  • Bone infection underneath the skin
  • Foreign objects in the skin.
  • Any breaks in the skin that allow bacteria to invade the skin.
  • Eczema or psoriasis long term skin conditions
  • Puncture wound and injuries that tear the skin.

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT


Diagnosis


Cellulitis diagnosed by physical examination and depending on the severity of your symptoms, your may take blood or a sample of the wound to test for bacteria.


Treatment


Treatment for cellulitis is oral antibiotics but these treatments are not permanent and safe. Thus homeopathic treatment is the best treatment for cellulitis


MANAGEMENT


  • Wash your wound daily with soap and water.
  • Apply a protective cream or ointment.
  • Cover your wound with a bandage.
  • Moisturize your skin regularly.
  • Trim your fingernails and toenails carefully
  • Protect your hands and feet.

HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT 

There are medicines like belladonna, apis, ledum pal, silicea, calendula, etc. But medicine depends on the presentation of the case and should never be taken without consulting a registered homeopath. Homeopathy has permanent cure for cellulitis without using antibiotics.


DO’s AND DON’Ts


Do’s


  • Wash your wound daily with soap and water.
  • Apply a protective cream or ointment.
  • Cover your wound with a bandage while going out.
  • Moisturize your skin regularly.

Don’ts


  • Don’t puncture the boils.
  • Don’t rub or scratch the area.
  • Don’t wear synthetic clothes

HOMEOPATHIC APPROACH TO CHALAZION!!!

WHAT IS CHALAZION ?


Chalazion is small, slow growing, inflammatory lump or swelling in the eyelids, it usually occur in upper eyelids but also appear in lower eyelids and it is painless swelling. 

Chalazion is usually harmless, it is not a tumor or growth and it is usually self limiting within one week


Chalazion and stye –there are differences in both conditions both occur on eyelids but chalazion differ from stye because

  •  Generally  stye is painful condition and chalazion is painless ,
  • Stye occur due to infection of the meibomian gland but chalazion occur due to blockage of the meibomian gland, chalazion may develop after styes.

RISK  FACTORS


There are various risk factors which cause chalazion such as 

  • Inflammatory disease – chalazion is more occur in those people who have underlying inflammatory condition of the skin or eyes.These are chronic blepharitis ,acne rosacea ,seborrheic dermatitis ,less commonly due to viral conjunctivitis .
  • It is common in those people who don’t maintain the lid hygiene
  • It is more common in adults from 30 to 50 
  • Viral infection
  • Person with high blood lipid concentration 
  • Leishmaniasis
  • stress also promote this condition
  • Any trauma to eyelids 
  • Eyelids surgery 
  • trachoma 
  • Tuberculosis
  • Skin cancer
  • Diabetes

COMPLICATIONS


  • Loss of eyelashes -if chalazion occur in repeated manner it lead to the loss of eyelashes.
  • Dry eyes -due to blocking of the meibomian gland can lead to dry eyes .
  • Cosmetic problem-chalazion lead to cosmetic problem ,due to repeated chalazion in eyelids it lead to disfigurement of eyelids .surgery for chalazion leave scar on eyelids .
  • Recurrence -generally if chalazion subside will not come back again ,but in some case chalazion occur again and again. 
  • Orbital cellulitis– generally chalazion is not infected but in some case it become infected and spread to other parts of the eyes ,and cause symptoms such as-extreme redness,swelling ,tenderness etc.all these problems cause difficulty in opening of the eyes ,and sometimes patient may get a fever,chills,popping out of eyes , photophobia .
  • Astigmatism – if the chalazion is bigger it lead to pressure on cornea and cause abnormal curvature of the cornea as a result it cause  difficulty in proper vision.

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES


Symptoms


  • Initial it looks like a small , red inflamed area on eyelids .
  • Gradually inflammation increases which looks like a lump ,it occur on the upper or lower eyelids
  • Swelling is painless
  • Swelling is firm or hard to touch 
  • It may cause blurring of vision or block the vision but it depends on size ,and location of the chalazion ,particularly large size chalazion press the eyeball and cause these problems.
  • Sometimes may cause watery eyes and mild irritation .
  • If chalazion becomes infected it may become red,swollen and painful.but it is less common condition .

Causes 

  • Normally meibomian gland also called tarsal glands present in eyelids ,there are 30 to 40 in each of the upper and about 25 in lower lids,the function of this gland is to produce oily substance ,this oily substance mixed with the tears and protect the eyes from evaporation of the eyes tear film ,but in chalazion these meibomian glands become blocked or these oily substance become thick due to any inflammatory condition or may be any virus .it lead to formation of chalazion.
  • Inflammatory condition like seborrhea ,acne ,rosacea ,chronic blepharitis ,or any long term inflammatory condition of the eyes .
  • Chalazion is more common in case of viral conjunctivitis or infection of eyes and eyelids 

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT


Diagnosis


  • To diagnose the Chalazion an eye examination is required. During eye examination usually painless lump is found ,which is firm swelling. 
  • Doctor may ask about the symptoms such as redness, watery discharge present or not ,any itching ,pain to rule out other conditions.
  • Any past history of eye disease. 
  • Sometime doctor require biopsy to rule out any growth such as benign or malignant growth.

Treatment


  • Some chalazion may heel self within one week  but in some cases, treatment is required .
  • Conventional treatment are antiseptic drops or ointments or remove surgical procedure 
  • Sometimes injection of steroids may given 
  • All these treatments are not safe and permanent homeopathy are the best option because it gives permanent cure 

MANAGEMENT


  • Use warm compression for about 10 to 15 minutes in the affected area ,it softens any hardening which causes blocking of the gland duct . warm compression open the duct and promotes blood circulation to the inflamed area .repeat this process several times a day for best results 
  • Massage – daily massage the eyelids gently for few minutes it also promote the draining of oil ducts .
  • Avoid eye makeup or wearing contact lenses until chalazion heels .because make and lense can cause more irritation to eyes.
  • Clean the eyes properly every day it prevent from further developing 
  • Don’t irritate the chalazion by rubbing the eyes 
  • If you touch your eyes please ensure your hand must be clean 
  • Always wear sunglasses whenever going outside from  home ,it protects the eyes from dust ,air pollution and sun rays .
  • Change your eye makeup after every six months ,it reduces the chances of infection
  • Do not harm the chalazion like pop , poke ,stab , puncture or scratch because this activity can lead to scarring and re -clogging 

HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT 

Homoeopathy treat this condition in a very good manner also prevent from the surgery ,homeopathic medicine is a better option because 

  • It reduce the occurrence 
  • It reduces the symptoms such as swelling redness,, discomfort
  • Is is safe and effective and harmful to other organ 
  • It removes the cause and gives permanent relief 

Some homeopathic medicine are thuja ,apis,pulsatilla,staphysagria,calc carb,silicea ,sulphur ,graphites,calc flour .


DO’S AND DON’TS


Do’s


  • Do warm compression
  • Maintain eye, hygiene always wash eyes .
  • Massage the eyes regularly 
  • Change your makeup within 6 month
  • Protect your eyes from sunglasses 
  • Always touch the eyes with clean hand
  • Eat healthy diet
  • Keep hydrated

 Don’ts 

  • Don’t share your eye makeup
  • Avoid to harm the chalazion 
  • Don’t scratch or puncture 
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol 
  • Avoid to share hankies , towels .
  • Avoid to wear lenses during chalazion
  • Don’t rub your eyes

PERMANENT SOLUTION FOR ORAL THRUSH/CANDIDIASIS!!!

WHAT IS CANDIDIASIS (THRUSH) DISEASE ?


It is a type of fungal infection which occur in the lining of the mouth. In this condition there is formation of white bumps inside the mouth it occur due to candida fungus, also known as yeast .


Risk factors


  • Candidiasis mainly occur in small babies ,and toddlers 
  • In adults if the immune system is weak due to sedentary lifestyle
  • Diabetes ,  person having uncontrolled diabetes are more prone due to low healing power in diabetic patient,and contain high sugar in blood it increases the growth of the fungus  
  • HIV infection 
  • Leukemia 
  • anaemia
  • Cancer 
  • Any condition which lead to chronic dry mouth   such as xerostomia 
  • During pregnancy various hormonal changes occur it lead to oral thrush 
  • Smoking
  • Dentures may cause thrush due to unfit denture , who does not maintain the hygiene while using denture , person who don’t remove denture during sleep 
  • Some medication which disturb the normal growth of the fungus these are corticosteroids ,antibiotics ,birth control pills 
  • Sometime excessive mouthwash can harm those bacteria which maintain the growth of candida in mouth
  • Diet -any person who taking diet which is lack of nutrition  mainly iron ,vit B12 ,folic acid 
  • Sometime it occur occur after chemotherapy or radiotherapy to the head and neck

COMPLICATIONS


  • Candidiasis is the contagious infection so it may spread to other parts of the body such esophagus ,vagina or sometime it may spread to your partner thruogh vaginal sex , oral sex.
  • Untreated oral thrush may enter the bloodstream and reach to patient heart , brain , eyes or other parts of the body 
  • Untreated oral thrush may also lead to septic shock 
  • If breastfeeding baby affected from candidiasis it may spread to mother breast 

SYMPTOMS & CAUSES


SYMPTOMS


Symptoms usually appear suddenly

  • Burning and redness in mouth
  • Tongue become white 
  • Pain and Difficulty In swallowing
  • Presence of white ,creamy slightly raised lesions in mouth ,mainly present on the tongue or inner cheeks but may be present on the root of your tongue ,gums ,mouth , tonsils,or back of the throat 
  • Sometimes fever may occur but fever occur when infection spread to esophagus .
  • Feeling of being stuck in throat ,as if something like food is stuck in the throat 
  • These lesions may be bleed or become painful when scrape or brush 
  • Sometimes affected person can’t recognise the taste of food 
  • Bad taste in mouth
  • May be the corners of the mouth become dry cracked 
  • Soreness  in mouth 
  • Cottony feeling in the mouth 

If oral thrush occur in children it leads to various symptoms such as 

  • Baby become irritable 
  • Stop taking feed
  • Become lazy 
  • May be crying most of the time 

CAUSES


  • Candida is a fungus normally present in the mouth ,digestive track ,and skin of the healthy human being but it present in small amount because the quantity of fungus is controlled by other bacteria and microorganisms in the body , But overgrowth of fungus  is triggered by some factors such as
  •  certain medications such as corticosteroids , antibacterial drugs ,some hormonal pills
  • Stress
  •  uncontrolled diabetes 
  • some health issues such as HIV,leukemia ,anaemia ,
  •  wrong dentures ,or maintain bad hygiene of the denture .
  • Any condition which causes chronic dry mouth lead to thrush
  • Excessive use of mouthwash kill the good bacteria in the mouth 

All these factors weaken the immunity and disturb the growth of candida ,and as a result the growth of the fungus candida become overgrown it lead to symptoms


DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT


DIAGNOSIS


  • Thrush is usually diagnosis by examination of patient mouth ,during examination raised lesion in mouth appear which appear white 
  • In some cases biopsy of the affected area is required to confirm the diagnosis 
  • If  there is any symptoms of esophageal thrush then throat swab culture or endoscopy is required to confirm the diagnosis 
  • Throat swab culture -in this procedure a sample of tissue is taken from the back of the throat by using cotton 
  • Endoscopy -a thin tube with a camera is inserted through mouth and examine the esophagus 
  • Anya past medical history also helpful in diagnosis

TREATMENT

  • The conventional treatment of candidiasis is antifungal medication which is given orally for 10 to 15 days 
  • Medicated ointment is used 
  • If oral thrush occur in baby during breastfeeding then treatment should be taken by both 
  • But all these treatments are not safe and permanent ,homeopathy is the best option because it is gentle and permanent 

MANAGEMENT


  • Maintain mouth hygiene ,because bad hygiene cancers the growth of the fungus 
  • Avoid mouthwashes  and sprays ,they kill the necessary bacteria 
  • Take diet which is less in sugar 
  • Rinse mouth salt water 
  • Toothbrush should be soft because hard brush can scrap the lesions 
  • Limit yeast containing foods,because it enhances the fungus growth 
  • Try to change toothbrush frequently during active infection
  • Avoid alcohol and smoking
  • A mother who is infected from candidiasis in breast area should be treated and maintain nipple hygiene at the time of feeding 

HOMEOPATHIC MANAGEMENT


 Homeopathy is the best option because through homeopathy medicine we can prevent other complications and disease condition is well managed ,permanent cured by Homeopathy and also prevent relapses 

It is natural and safe  treatment but never take prescription without consultation from the registered practitioner

Some homeopathic medicine are 

Borax,mercurius solubis,nitric acid ,nux vomica ,candida albicans , 


DO’S & DON’TS


DO’S


  • Take balance diet 
  • Rinse your mouth with saline water 
  • Maintain oral hygiene
  • Use soft brush 
  • Take proper sleep
  • Maintain sugar in normal range 
  • Use denture which is fit properly 
  • Keep hydrated

DON’TS


  • Avoid smoking and alcohol
  • Avoid junk food 
  • Avoid scraping of the lesions 
  • Avoid kisses during active infection it may spread to other 
  • Avoid sugar in diet 
  • Avoid excessive taking of medicine 
  • Avoid excessive mouth washing 
  • Avoid to become mouth dry 

GET RID OF YOUR OCD WITH HOMEOPATHY!!!

WHAT IS OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder )?


OCD is common , chronic mental disorder in which a person has uncontrollable ,recurring thoughts (obsessions ) and behaviour (compulsion) as  results affected person feel an urge to do the same activity again and again 

Mild thinking regarding future, loved one are normal but normally it goes after some time,but if these thoughts stuck in mind and lead to excessive activity or harm the other person , these condition called obsessive compulsive disorder.


Risk factors


  • Sex-  OCD  is more common in female 
  • Age – it is more common in young age .
  • Stress – stress and traumatic life is one of the leading triggering factors which cause OCD .OCD occur in reaction to stress .
  • Mental disorder –  OCD sometimes OCD is related or triggered by other mental conditions such as anxiety , depression .
  • Mental trauma – such as history of sexual abuse ,stres in relationship ,history of cheating by someone other.
  • Medical history – if  someone had a history of major illness it lead to major impact on mind or any history of brain injury ,and as a result people become more cautious about future but sometimes people become excess cautious about future.Complication

Untreated OCD can lead to

  • social Isolation – sometimes people avoid company of friend , family and want to be alone 
  • Academica failure – due to mind restlessness it lead to lack of concentration on work as a result affected person become slow in performance 
  • Loss of concentration at work or other actives 
  • Loss of sleep due to anxiety
  • Exhaustion at physical and emotional plane due to repeated dosing of activities it lead to weakness on physical or mental plane 
  • Depression 
  • Panic attacks 
  • And some time suicidal thoughts

 Types


  • Checking -this type affected always feel something is not right ,that’s why feel need to do or check the same things in repeated manner like

Checking include- repeated checking of doors at night it is close or not ,checking of taps ,alarms , car doors , houde lights or other appliances .

.the affected person also check repeatedly mails ,sms .letters  etc .there may be a fear of having made mistakes .

  • Fear of Contamination  –in this type , person always having fear of contamination of getting disease from another person , in this type affected person always doing excessive tooth brushing , overcleaning of certain rooms , bathrooms ,kitchen and avoid large crowds for fear of getting infected .

There is persistent feeling of being dirty ,and affected person get satisfaction by doing excessive showering and washing 

  • Hoarders – people having fear something bad will happen if they throw things anything away .they accumulate junk like old waste newspaper , old curtains ,old books wood etc .
  • Symmetry and fastidious – a person with OCD want to make or arrange everything in right manner , always want clean home that’s why always doing or keep busy in arranging things .
  • Intrusive thoughts -this type include violent ,hurting ,obsessional thoughts and sometimes may harm the loved one violently or sexually ,

Thoughts of these people include obsessions about relaitionship ,killing others or suicide.



SYMPTOMS & CAUSES


Symptoms


Common obsessive thoughts in OCD


  • Fear of contamination by germs or dirt or getting disease from the others 
  • Fear of losing self control during anger or harming yourself or others 
  • Having repeated violent thoughts and images 
  • Excessive focus on religious or moral ideas 
  • Fear of losing anything 
  • Fastidious , some affected people want everything in very good manner 
  • Superstitions , excessive believe in luck behind any good or bad mishappening 
  • Sexual and violent thoughts in mind 
  • Worries of getting hurt.
  •  Fear of death lead to always conscious about taking breathing ,blinking of eyes or other body sensation

Common compulsive behaviour in OCD


  • Excessive checking of anything ,such as locks , appliances and switches and gates .
  • Repeatedly checking of loved one to check out he or she is safe or not.
  • Waste more time in washing hands ,clothes ,rooms in fear of contamination 
  • Maintain everything in order ‘just so’
  • Excessively stuck in religious or engaged themselves in doing rituals 
  • Collection of waste material junk such as newspaper ,old curtains ,
  • Count the things repeatedly.

 Causes of OCD


The exact cause is unknown but they are some theories which is related to the OCD 

  • Genetic or hereditary factors – it is believed that persons who have a family history of OCD are more prone for developing OCD 
  • Some biological changes such Chemical , structural and functional abnormalities in the brain lead to OCD .
  • Environmental – it is also believe that some infection also triggered the OCD 
  • Recovery from medical conditions – if any person recover from any major in past it can lead to take precautions in the future but sometimes excessive thought of precautions can lead to OCD
  • Stress and depression – mental stress or depression in life can cause OCD
  • Past history – if any childhood trauma such as history of sexual abuse 

Diagnosis and treatment


The  diagnosis of OCD is made by physical examination,any past medical or injury history , lab tests such as CBC to rule out the thyroid function or to rule out any presence of drugs ,or doctor may ask some questions about your feelings , thoughts , and habits.


Treatment


The convention treatment are medications such as antidepressants  and psychotherapy(CBT cognitive behavioral therapy ) or combination of both 

But medications are not so much useful and it also lead to harmful effects on the body such as weight gain ,mood swings , etc 

But homoeopathy and counselling will help you and give permanent relief from the symptoms


Management


The main of the treatment or management of OCD is to minimise the anxiety ,negative thoughts ,reducing fear and prevent from affecting daily routine activities 

  • Divert your focus from one thing to other such as engage yourself in doing some exercise , playing computer games ,the main aim of refocus is to avoid or delay the urge to perform a compulsive behavior 
  • Maintain Dairy – maintain a diary and write your daily activity it can help u to detect your repeated activity of the same work .
  • Join supportive company ,people who encourage you from getting out these OCD.
  • Focused on your aim , set small targets and goals and try best to fulfill the goals.
  • Make healthy hobbies ,
  • Exercise and yoga daily it gives you positive thinking 
  • Reduce stress
  • Take adequate sleep because incomplete sleep lead to irritation of the mind 
  • Eat healthy diet 
  • Spend time with family , good supportive friends.

Homeopathic management


Homeopathy is the unique way of treatment , it can help in reducing the thoughts of doing something in repeated manner there are various medicine which is very effective and useful .but only constitutional medicine will help you and never take ho homeopathy medicine without any consultation from the registered medical practitioner 

Some homeopathic medicine  are 

Arsenic albim 

Calcarea carb

Medorrhinum

Syphilinum

Iodum

Natrum mur 

Carcinosin

Psorinum


Do’s and don’ts


Do’s


  • Take healthy diet 
  • Do exercise and yoga
  • Stay in supportive society friends
  • Spend time with friends and family
  • Keep positive thinking
  • Take proper sleep

Don’ts 

  • Never feel depressed
  • Avoid stress and anxiety 
  • Avoid alcohol and smoking or any drugs
  • Avoid bad company 
  • Avoid coffee , tea or any form of nicotine 
  • Avoid taking any major decision when you feel depressed

HOMEOPATHIC APPROACH TO COPD

WHAT IS COPD(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease )?


COPD is referred to chronic obstructive inflammatory disease , it is called obstructive because it obstruct the airflow to the lungs ,and this airflow obstructed due to inflammation of the tubes.

The most common condition of the lungs which caused COPD is 

  • EMPHYSEMA – in this condition there is damage of the alveoli , in lungs many small sacs of alveoli are present normally but in this case the walls between the many sacs disappear and make one larger sacs it lead to lack of absorption of oxygen as a result  oxygen level in the blood decreases. When the alveoli damaged , the lungs lose their springiness . the airways become flabby, and air is trapped in the lungs ,this situation leads to feelings of shortness of breath. 
  • CHRONIC BRONCHITIS – bronchitis occurs when the bronchial tubes are irritated and swollen normally cold and cough occur and gone after completing this course but if when the infection spread to bronchial tubes it lead to inflammation and swellings of the tubes it lead more mucus and timid cough .there are tiny hairlike structure in the bronchial tubes called cilia . the cilia help move mucus up the tubes so it can be coughed out.in chronic condition tubes lose this cilia it lead to more coughing more coughing makes the tubes more irritated 
  • REFRACTORY ( NON REVERSIBLE ) ASTHMA -in asthma there is tightening and swelling of the airways ,some medication can reverse this condition before attack but in this type of asthma , the response towards medicine are fail.

All these conditions cause chronic irritation of the bronchial tubes and contribute in COPD 


Risk factors


  • Age -the development of COPD is slow and take times upto year ,most affected age from above 40 or more 
  • Genetics -sometime it is related to genetics ,due to genetic disorder it lead to low level of alpha -1-antitrypsin(AAT) it protect the lungs , if these levels become low it makes prone for the COPD 
  • Smoking -the main risk factor of COPD is smoking ,the people who are chronic smokers are more prone for the COPD, pipe smokers , cigar smokers and marijuana smokers also at risk of developing COPD ,
  • Second hand smokers – means who don’t smoke but came under the exposure of smoking by smokers
  • Medical condition – people who are already suffer from asthma then smoke ,smoking it is like a poison for that person , other conditions such as immune deficiency syndrome ,vasculitis syndrome ,a connective tissue disorder, and other genetic disorders such as salla disease (autosomal recessive disorder of sialic acid storage in the body )
  • Occupation -some occupation such as mines , coal factory , chemical ,fumes , vapours factory ,or other dust factory it lead to deposition of dust in the lungs it lead to obstruction and inflame your lung
  • Burning fumes – there are many processes which produce smoke such as cooking,chimneys , if the bad ventilation occur at that place it’s also lead to deposition of smokes in lungs

Compilation


  • Pneumonia – these people suffering from COPD are more prone to develop pneumonia (it is an infection of the lungs lead to inflammtion ).about 40% chances of developing pneumonia increase in people of COPD if compare with non COPD persons.
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARSD)– as the disease progressed it lead to severe inflammation of the lungs which cause fluid to leak into the blood vessels in the airways.as a result the small air sacs , or alveoli collapses 
  • Depression – the rate of occurrence of depression higher two times in COPD persons because due to exertion , fatigue sometimes persons not able to complete the task .
  • Heart failure- as the lungs not work properly in this condition it increase the pressure on other organs such as heart ,due to low supply of oxygen the pressure on the pulmonary artery will increase as the body try counter thus , it lead to excess strain on the heart . the heart become weak and less able to pump 
  • Frailty – due to excessive weakness it decrease the appetite and cause noticeable weight loss 
  • Collapsed lungs (pneumothorax)- COPD  damage the lungs it lead to leakage of air in between the chest wall and lungs that cause collapse of the lungs like deflated balloon. People with COPD  also prone to developing diabetes , osteoporose,sleep disorder

Sign and symptoms


COPD is slowly developing disease so ,Sometimes the symptoms may develop after long exposure to risk factors ,and it is not necessarily the initial symptoms match with latter stage 

The initial symptoms are

  •  Productive cough usually in the morning which is colorless or white mucus 
  • Breathlessness ,termed as shortness of breath(dyspnea) in early stage this symptoms may occur occasionally on exertion doing simple tasks such as standing up ,walking 
  • Acute chest pain while exertion 
  • Frequent coughing may be with mucous and without mucus
  • Feeling of tightness in the chest due to congestion
  • Wheezing sound from the chest 
  • Always feel to clear your throat often , especially in the morning

As the disease progresses from mild to moderate ,  severity of symptoms increases 

  • Rapid breathing (tachypnea)
  • Respiratory problems such as difficulty in breathing increase like in
  • few steps , any minimal exertion lead to breathlessness.
  • Bluish discoloration of the skin
  •  Swelling of extremities
  • Over inflated lungs (hyperinflation)
  • Wheezing increases 
  • Easily fatigue
  • Diffuse breath sounds 
  • Prolonged exhalations 
  • Sleep disturbance due to breathlessness 
  • Facial expression such as anxiety , perspiration , restless increase.

Causes


The major cause of COPD is smoking or exposure to any kind of tobacco smoke ,90% of the cases of copd is related to tobacco , second hand smoker also at higher risk 

Other causes 

Prolonged exposure to any kind of air pollution such as burning coal , wood and sometimes industrial pollutions and this type of exposure occur mainly in industrial area . 

Some infectious disease -some infectious diseases of the lungs which harm the lung tissue in patients with hyperactive airways or asthma may also increase the risk of COPD

 All these factors damage the lung tissue which means it decreases the elasticity of the lungs and due to physical changes in the tissues of the lungs and clogging of the airways with thick mucus 

And finally the oxygen present in the air not get by the lungs and it leads to poor oxygen supply to the air space where exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide .All these processes lead to lack of oxygen in the body and develop shortness of breathing


Diagnosis and treatment


Past history such as

  •  his /her breathing history 
  • Any history of tobacco smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke 
  • Working location -history of  exposure of air pollution such coal , mines or any dust 
  • Any history of TB or any lung disease 

Test to confirm the  diagnosis the COPD 

  • Chest X ray –chest x ray is done to rule to emphysema or other lungs related problems or heart failure 
  • CT scan of the lungs –this test is done to rule out lung cancer and emphysema
  • Arterial blood gas analysis – this test is done to check out the presence of bringing oxygen into your blood and removing carbon dioxide 
  • Lung function test (pulmonary function test )- this test help to check out the status of inhale and exhale oxygen in your lungs .spirometry is the common lung function test.

Treatment


There are convention treatment of COPD are medications such as bronchodilators ,oral steroids , inhaled steroids ,antibiotics,oxygen therapy 

All these treatments are just temporary it suppress the conditions only ,homeopathy can cure the disease from the roots


  Management


The best way to fight this disease is management 

  • You must stop smoking and alcohol because it can worsen the conditions 
  • Wear mask whenever go from home or polluted area
  • Clean your airways-in COPD cases mucus collected in the air passage and cause difficulty in breathing , so must timely clear the nose.
  • Exercise daily – initially start with mild exercises such as breathing exercises ,it increases the strength of lungs .
  • Drink plenty of water and use warm water 
  • Avoid unnecessary exposure to cold it minimise the frequency of cold and cough
  • Never go in polluted area such as where the exposure of smokers are high , 
  • Join the company which support you and think positive 

Homeopathic management


Homeopathy having very good results because it increases the power of lungs and give power to fight with the pollution

It never suppress the condition it gives you permanent and safe treatment

Some homeopathic medicine are 

Spongia ,bryonia,argentum nitricum,rumex,phosphorus , calcarea carb,sulphur,arsenic album, 

Always take medicine after proper consultation with register homeopathy practitioner 


Do’s and don’ts


Do’s


  • Eat healthy diet 
  • Doing breathing exercise and yoga 
  • Drink lots of water
  • Wear mask in outside the home 
  • Drink warm water 
  • Join healthy friends or company 
  • Maintain healthy weight 
  • Always keep inhaler for emergency conditions

Don’ts

  • Avoid smoking 
  • Avoid  polluted jobs 
  • Avoid exposure to sun 
  • Avoid junk food 
  • Don’t panic 
  • Avoid company of smokers 

HAVEN’T TRIED HOMEOPATHY FOR HAIR LOSS YET?

What is Pattern hair loss?


The term hair loss refer  when the hair is losing from the scalp , resulting thinning of hair , patchyness , or baldness.The medical term for hair loss is alopecia , permanent loss of hair is called baldness. In india more than 50% of men of age 50 will be affected by male pattern baldness


Type of hair loss


There are two types of pattern of hair lossing 

  • Male pattern baldness – in male pattern baldness the losing of hair start typically from the top and front of the head and form M pattern in forehead ,it is also called androgenic alopecia because it is triggerde by make sex hormne and gentic cause .
  • Female  pattern baldness – in female hair loss there is no specific pattern but usually hair getting thin , hairline is receding

Three types of female pattern baldness –

  1. Type 1 when the amount of hair thinning is small in your scalp 
  2. Type 2 there is widening of the scalp and the amount of thining is increased around it 
  3. Type 3 the thinning start throughout the scalp and visibility of scalp in between the hair .

Risk factors


  • Age -male pattern baldness mainly affect the adult man but may also occur in teenage .
  • Stress full events distress –any emotional shock which cause impact on our health it lead to hair fall,hair fall occurs after physical and mental stress.
  • Genetic – if there is a history of baldness in family those persons are more prone for the hair loss  
  • Some Disease – like anemia or a thyroid problem also lead a major cause of hair loss .
  • Radiation or chemotherapy treatments taken for any purpose  
  • Some medications such as ,medicine used for blood thinners in case of embolism , steroids , when any person take high doses of vitaminA , steroids, medicine for cancer arthritis depression high blood pressure heart problems  .
  • Any infection of the scalp -due to infection of the scalp it weakens the roots of hair some conditions such as scalp psoriasis , seborrheic dermatitis , tinea capitis or may be some other condition causes hair fall.
  • Any problems with diet – if any person take diet which is low in iron and contain a high level of vitamin A it also lead to hair fall .
  • Immune system- when the immune system become due to fever , flu or any other conditions also increase the risk of hair fall.
  • Significant weight loss 

Female pattern baldness –


Majority of risk factors of male and female baldness is same ,Some specific cause which is related to only female cause of hair loss such as

  • PCOS  -as the PCOS is hormonal disease is it also play an important role in hair fall.
  • Grooming –making tight ponytails , braids or cornrows in which hair face tightly bandage it hurt the hair lining so as result it weakens the hair.                                                   
  • Menopause – women who is at the age of menopause also prone to hair loss.

Complications

Hair Falls does not contain major complication but it may cause permanent hair loss and scarring of the scalp.

Social stigma –beautiful hair increases the confidence level but if the hair growth is  not good it sometimes lead to depression ,isolation from society , friends .


Symptoms & causes


The only symptoms of hair loss is falling of hair loss but falling of hair follow some pattern that’s why hair loss is distributed in two types of male pattern baldness and female pattern baldness 

Male pattern baldness – in classical male pattern baldness hair loss begins to start from above the temples and vertex (calvaria ) of the scalp as the condition increase , the hair fall gradually increases and sometimes it cause hairfall in M pattern in forehead .

In Female there is no specific pattern but gradually the quantity of hair decreased and the thickness of hair become less.


Cause


  • Average hair loss per day is about 100 , this loss usually does not cause any noticeable thinning of scalp hair because if the hair is loss , new hair is growing at the same time this is the cycle between damage hair loss and growth of hair if this cycle is disturb it causes noticeable hair thinning .
  • Male pattern baldness also called androgenetic alopecia because andro indicate male sex hormone (dihydrotestosterone ) while genetic indicate genetic heredity.
  • Stress mental or physical stress also lead to hair loss because it weakens the immunity .
  • Other causes of hair loss is lack of nutrition,infections of the scalp it also leads to hair fall.
  • Any infection of the scalp such as tinea capitis , seborrheic dermatitis , fungal infection lead to hair loss 
  • Diet , if the diet is not nutritious it lead to weakness of the immune system

In female the cause of hair loss is sometimes different 

  • After pregnancy the chances of hair fall is increase due to hormonal changes 
  • At the time of menopause 
  • Having PCOD 
  • Thyroid is more common in females so thyroid is also one of the major causes of hair fall in females  

Diagnosis and treatment


The diagnosis of hair fall , it requires just a past history , medical history  and the physical examination, 

Blood  examination to rule the anemia or other cause of hair fall.

Some time scalp biopsy also to find any infection of the scalp .

Pull test – physician gently pulls the hair and check the amount pulled hair.


Treatment


The convention treatment of the hair fall is medicated soaps , shampoos and some time doctors also used supplement to fulfill the need of vitamins such as multivitaminas. 

And the other way of treatment is just find out the underlying cause and treat it well  

In homeopathy hair fall is well treated because it is safe and permanent 


Management of the hair fall


Management of the hair fall is very important because with the medicine and management the result is very good 

  • Don’t let your hair get dry so apply coconut oil or almond oil because dryness of hair are prone to break .
  • Always take healthy diet and nutritious diet ,diet which is rich in protein because protein makes hair strong.
  • Limit the consumption of alcohol and smoking because also weak your immunity.
  • Protect your hair from dust and exposure to sun 
  • Always use herbal products and try to avoid chemicals product as much as possible.   
  • And the main management is to find the cause of hair fall and treat them.

Homoeopathic management


Why homeopathy is the best treatment of the hair falls because homeopathy is the natural way of treatment and it is also harmless ir gives permanent solutions from the hairfalls 

But never take homeopathy medicine without any consultation from registered homeopathic practitioner . some homeopathy medicine are 

Jaborandi ,acid flour ,thuja ,lycopodium ,phosphorus,sulphur


Do’s and don’ts


Do’s


  • Always be gentle with your hair while your washing , combing the hair 
  • Always try to use herbal shampoos 
  • Use conditioner in week to make smooth here 
  • Always keep hair clean and dry 
  • Protect your hair from direct exposure to sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet light.
  • Eat protineous diet 
  • Keep hydrated 
  • Join healthy community

Don’ts


  • Avoid tight hairstyles such as braids buns or ponytails 
  • Avoid rubbing , pulling and twisting of hair
  • Avoid treatment of hair which is full of chemical and also avoid highly chemical based shampoos ..
  • Avoid to do hair dry .
  • Avoid hot rollers curling irons and hot oil treatment.
  • Limit smoking and alcohol
  • Avoid unnecessary medications